The California Lemon Law – Where Did It Come From

Not many people understand where laws began but many times it’s important to know this to help you better understand the law itself. This is also true with the California Lemon Law.

This law started in 1979 by a woman in Lemon Grove, California. She purchased a car and while waiting it to be repaired she lost her patience. Considering that 3 months had gone by, you can understand why. All by herself, she picketed that exact dealership for a whole 5 months. During that time she was verbally abused by the mechanics, salesman and customers. Finally after all this time she got some attention from the local newspaper. A citizen’s movement began, support for her situation built and it resulted in the California Lemon Law being enacted.

This humble beginning spawned a lemon law in every single state. Of course the law varies from state to state but they pretty much all say the same thing; that the vehicle must be in good condition, without malfunctions when it was sold and throughout the life of the warranty.

California, like most other states, states that after a reasonable number of attempts to repair the vehicle by the dealership, if the vehicle still isn’t fixed, then it can be considered a lemon. The only exception to that rule is if the malfunction could cause bodily harm or even death. If that’s the case, then it can be just one attempt to repair it and if it isn’t fixed, it can be considered a lemon and the vehicle will quality under this law.

The most important aspect of this law is regarding the warranty. It doesn’t matter if the car is one month old or two years old. If the vehicle is still under warranty, then you can qualify for this law. Also, don’t forget that this law doesn’t just cover automobiles. It also covers: trucks, SUVs, vans, boats, recreational vehicles and motorcycles. The same thing applies to all the vehicles except for the last three. They have several specifications that must be in order before they can qualify.

Many times when you purchase a vehicle, the dealership will say that it is being sold “as is.” If you bought a vehicle like that, it still can qualify. Saying “as is” does not exempt that vehicle from being considered a lemon. You still can go forward, get yourself a good “lemon law” attorney and get your money back or a new replacement vehicle.

Remember, when you look for an attorney, find one that will give you a free case evaluation to see if your vehicle qualifies. Also, find one that will not make you spend any out of pocket expenses. What they usually do is work on your case and they take a percentage of any of the money that they recover for you.

When to Contact an Elder Law Attorney

Seniors, just like everyone else, deserve to have their rights protected. There are situations when those who are old and unable to care for themselves find they need legal assistance. Whether you’re concerned for yourself or a loved one, an elder law attorney can review your situation and determine what you can do moving ahead. Your family deserves the best possible representation, and you should consult a legal professional who will give your matter the close, consistent attention it requires.

An elder law attorney can help with many different situations. When you have a loved one in an assisted living home, you want to ensure your family member is properly cared for. The kind of care you receive depends heavily on the type of funding you have. If you’re preparing to put a senior member of your family in an assisted living home, a legal professional can help you determine the best course of action. The way you pay for your care can affect your financial stability and flexibility for years to come.

In addition to dealing with matters involving nursing homes, an elder law attorney can help when you need an in-home nurse. There are often situations where Medicaid benefits can be used to pay for these services. Many people are unaware that they can use their benefits to pay for in-home care, and you owe it to yourself to see if you qualify. Instead of struggling to understand the fine print of your health plan and going in circles with an insurance company, let a legal professional help you achieve a resolution. The legal language in a Medicaid plan can be difficult to understand, and your lawyer can answer all your questions and ensure you’re getting the coverage you need.

Even when you plan for the inevitable, it can be difficult to adjust when a loved one dies. When a member of your family passes away, his or her will or trust will go into effect. When you’re reviewing a will or trust, it’s important to have a lawyer who can answer all your questions and make sure your loved one’s wishes are carried out. In addition, there are situations where a family member becomes mentally incompetent and it is necessary to deal with their estate. Whether your loved one has already submitted a detailed document that determines how assets are divided or not, a legal professional can help bring about a resolution. Instead of trying to settle disputes or deal with outstanding debts on your own, let someone who is highly knowledgeable on the subject help.

During life’s transitions, an elder law attorney can offer the insight and guidance that makes all the difference. When it comes to these matters, it’s best to plan well in advance. Find a lawyer in your area who is available for a consultation to discuss your exact concerns.

How To Attract Success F. W. Sears – The Law Of Harmonious Attraction

During times of duress, uncertainty and economic challenges, we all at one time or another will turn to faith of some kind. While many of us appreciate that there is comfort in prayer and meditation; there are times when even the most devout seek a more clinical remedy.

If you are at all familiar with the principles behind the Law of Attraction then you will want to add this eBook to your collection. Dr. F. W. Sears was a practicing psychologist during the early 1900s; a predecessor of Napoleon Hill who skyrocketed to fame with Think & Grow Rich, Sears fueled many of Hills theories.

Sears published many articles on his study of harmonious attraction throughout his career. In this book How To Attract Success, he cites several case studies and his own personal experiences with modifying behavior in order to change the vibration or energy surrounding ones efforts in such a way as to literally attract the people, situations, circumstances etc. necessary to achieve the success you desire.

No, this is not hocus pocus, black magic voodoo, or atheist based. These are natures laws, universal laws that have been observed and studied and woven into all faiths, through the millennium, and accepted as a matter of fact. A matter of fact that struggles to preserve itself in a society more interested in how to make money instead of how to succeed as a human being. On a global level it is very important what we all individually seek to achieve and how we go about doing that. Many have utilized the Laws of Force without even realizing it when their efforts might have been better spent understanding the Law of Harmony. Why generate all that negative energy when positive energy will not only satisfy your own desires but also contribute to a more productive mass consciousness. One person really can affect change.

Dr. Sears expresses this best, To understand this Law of Force and its manipulation by the power of concentration with man’s mental faculties is what the schools, colleges and universities of the world teach as psychology.
It is no more real psychology than black is white. Just as black is the absence of all color while white is the harmonious union of all color, so is the psychology of the schools, colleges and universities of the world the absence of all real psychology because such teachings are limited only to the physical and mental planes. Real psychology is the union of all planes of consciousness manifesting in one perfect and harmonious whole, under the Law of Harmony.

Laws of Attraction did not begin or end with How To Attract Success. As a student of all the Universal Laws, you will want to study all the pioneers in this field for your own edification of a very broad subject. There are references in the book enough to get you started on your own self-help library. So many phenomenal books and teachers out there that can feed one’s hunger and thirst for self-improvement. There is no one path that will lead the masses to realize their inner-purpose, but all roads will lead you somewhere.

If this is the first book you have read that dared to claim that we could effectively change our own lives, it will fan your curiosity and drive you in new directions of self growth.

Dr. F.W. Sears was a Master of Psychology, a practical man of science. His writings and practical applications were produced during the 1910’s and 1920’s yet remain as relevant now as then. He not only practiced what he preached but, applied his theories in counsel to his own patients and chronicled their successes. Many of those accounts you will find in this book.
Turns out that Attraction is not a secret phenomenon it is an ancient Universal Truth. Study along with one of the Masters, discover what he has learned, lectured about and practiced himself.

In this adaptation, an introduction has been added that will show relevance almost 100 years later. By adding notable quotes from ancient scholars, spiritual teachers and other self-improvement authors, this chronicle of Dr. Sears’ observations and practical applications are more palatable to today’s reader.

If you are a student of the Universe, you will appreciate the books introduction and benefit from this read.

Is The Law Of Attraction Selfish

Lee and I were in front of a group of corporate employees who would have much rather been spending this time sitting at their computers or having an afternoon break. We had been asked to come in and speak.

Their employer said they needed an attitude adjustment. The employees were bickering, not working together, and stepping on each others’ necks to get to what they thought was the top. The employer was a family man who had come from very little money and had built a business that was successful enough to now have over a hundred employees. “They’re great at their work but they lack any sense of team work or love. I would settle for ‘like’ if they could work together.”

So he hired Lee and I to come in and teach a little about the law of attraction, and how it works. It was a tough crowd at first; no one asking questions, a lot of clearing of throats, but as the afternoon wore on, one or two became interested, then six, seven, followed by most of the crowd. They began firing questions at us, right and left.

“How does the law of attraction affect my relationship with my mother?” “How does the law of attraction help me with my car?”
“Can the law of attraction help with my health?”
“You mean I can work at a job I love and make money at the same time?”

The question and answer period went on for some time. I don’t know about Lee, but I felt the next question coming. It was from a gentleman of about thirty-six years old. “Aw c’mon! The Law of Attraction is a selfish law. It makes you only think of yourself. Selfish! What do you say to that?” The room was dead silent. Everyone wanted to hear the answer.

Lee and I had heard this comment before, usually from the same kind of person: a hard nosed reporter type who always seems to contradict anything that doesn’t fit into his world.

Lee took the question this time. Lee slowly smiled. “Sir, what do you want out of life?” The reporter bellowed back at Lee, “Just answer my question.”
“I am answering your question. But first, what do you want out of the life? What would you do with life if you had it all? Where would you go tomorrow if you didn’t have to work?”

“I would go fishing. So?” he snarled, in a bid to antagonize Lee.

“Why would you go fishing?” Lee baited.

“Makes me happy. Would you answer my question?” the “reporter” demanded impatiently.

“Makes you happy Sir, that is the Law of Attraction. Being happy with your life is not selfish. The Law of Attraction works whether you believe it or not. When you are aware of the Law of Attraction, and you start focusing on your “wants” and not your “don’t wants,” all you are seeking is happiness. If you are happy, then your spouse will be happy, if your family is happy, you will be happy, and if you are happy then your boss will be happy and so on and so on. So being happy with life, which is the ultimate goal in applying the law of attraction, is not selfish. So many people will benefit from your happiness, and when those people are happy it just keeps spreading. So Sir, if fishing makes you happy, does that make you selfish? I don’t believe it does. applying the law of attraction is the least selfish thing that anyone can do.”

The audience gave Lee a standing ovation and the “reporter” sat down.

When you think and feel what you want, and pay less attention to what you don’t want, this will bring you situations and people in your life that will make you happy. Being happy isn’t selfish. Being happy will help everyone around you.

The ultimate goal is to live your life and be happy while doing it. Wanting to get up in the morning when your job feels like play, and enjoying life exactly as you want your life to be through the Law of Attraction. That isn’t the pursuit of happiness; it is the realization of happiness.

Using Law Of Attraction Money Strategies Why The Secret Is Not Enough

So you fell for The Secret, did you? You recited affirmations. You believed you could be wealth. The universe was practically dripping with the positive vibes you were emitting. But your bank account is still empty, you still work for an idiot, and the bill collectors have you on speed dial. What happened? This guide to using law of attraction money techniques will help you learn the missing mindset you need to attract abundance.

Law Of Attraction Wealth Secret #1

The law of attraction, the basis for The Secret, doesnt work like a metaphysical candy dispenser. You cant simply wish your money dreams into beingand thats the mistake many Secret readers have made. It does take some work. The good news is that the work is simpleso simple that you can start today.

Those affirmations arent worth the paper theyre written on if you dont do something about them. If your affirmation is I want to attract wealth like a powerful magnet then youll need to consider wealth-building opportunities, whether its investing in the website youve always talked about creating or flipping the beat-up ol house down the road. So many of those who want to use law of attraction wealth strategies dream big, but fear taking bold steps toward building abundance.

Law Of Attraction Wealth Secret #2

If you want to live like a rock star, youll need to start hanging out with the rock stars. Whiling away all of your time with overworked, cash-poor friends doesnt exactly set you up for using the law attraction strategies to their full potential. You dont have to abandon your good-time pals, but be sure to find a chance to rub elbows with others. Money and the law of attraction go hand-in-hand when you surround yourself with wealthy people who can provide guidance and support.

Law Of Attraction Wealth Secret #3

You cant hide from your financial situation if you want to build wealth using law of attraction techniques. Yes, that means you need to open those credit card statements and retirement statementseven if it hurts. It will help you acknowledge some of the fear that emits those money-repellant emotions. Smart wealthy people always know where their money is, and you should, too. Once you recognize a starting point, its easier to visualize exactly what you need to do to start building the abundant and wealthy lifestyle youve always wanted.

Money and the law of attraction. This powerful combination does work if youre willing to invest time educating yourself about using law of attraction strategies.

Powerful Law Of Attraction Quotes To Help You Change Your Life!

hours a day, 7 days a week, the law of attraction is working in your life. It doesnt even matter whether you are aware of it or not, or if you want it to or not it never stops. This is why it is so important to learn how to control your thoughts and feelings so you attract positive things into your life. The following law of attraction quotes from of attraction quotes and start applying them to your life, you will begin to experience magic in your life like you never imagined!

Law of Attraction Quotes 1: You become and attract what you think. Your thoughts are far more powerful than you may have ever realized. While this may seem to be a new concept, its been around for centuries. The Bible states something very similar, that you are what you think. Its the hit movie, The Secret, focus on your thoughts and feelings. If you study these law all about focus. If you focus on negative things, you will attract negative things into your life. If you focus on positive, happy things, the Universe will send happy things your way. You must choose your thoughts carefully. They will determine everything you attract into your life!

Law of Attraction Quotes 2: People think about what they don’t want and attract more of the same. If you habitually think about everything you want but dont have in your life, you will never attract the things you desire. Instead, you just attract more lack. For instance, if you are like many people who often think or say, I never seem to have enough money, you will keep attracting not enough money. If you dont want scarcity, then you must stop thinking about whats scarce in your life.

Law of Attraction Quotes 3: What you focus on with your thought and feeling is what you attract into your experience. The best way to begin attracting the things you really desire is to begin changing your thoughts and emotions to reflect those things. The tricky part here is to not think in terms of not having them (as discussed above), but to act and feel as if you had everything you desire right now. Thats how you begin attracting them. The next quote explain this a little more

Law of Attraction Quotes 4: The Law of Attraction is simply figuring out for yourself what will generate the positive feelings of having what you want now. What you feel most of the time plays a key role in what you attract. So, if happy, joyful, grateful emotions dominate your life, positive things will come your way. One of the best ways to create positive feelings is to imagine already living the life of your dreams. Really get into the feelings of having that lifethe more you feel those positive feelings now, the more quickly you will attract that life. To put it another way, you must believe it (and feel it) to see it!

Law of Attraction Quotes 5: Happy feelings will attract more happy circumstances. It is so very important that you find ways to shift your feelings so they are more positive. The more things you can feel joyful, happy, and grateful about, the more you will attract positive, wonderful things.

Law of Attraction Quotes 6: What we think about and THANK about is what we bring about. Gratitude is really important when it comes to making the law of attraction work in your life. No matter what is currently going on in your life today, there is always something for which you can be thankful. Once you start focusing on gratitude, you will be amazed how much you will find that you can thank about. Do this, and your life will change dramatically!

Hopefully you are beginning to see the wisdom and power in these famous law of attraction quotes. Write them down, memorize them, and review these law of attraction quotes several times a day. As you do this, begin shifting your thoughts and feelings to those which will allow you to attract the things you truly desire!

California Lemon Law Firm Helps Protect Your Rights

If you have questions about lemon law, you should stop right now and contact product liability attorneys California. These are lawyers who specialize in lemon law cases and these lemon law firms are here to help consumers. But what is the “lemon law?” Maybe you have heard the term bandied about, and you wonder, “Does that apply to me? My car is broken, inoperable…again…and yet here I am still making payments while that hunk of junk rusts in the driveway!” Don’t be that guy or that girl. Get answers.

First, in a nutshell, here is the general description of the law that a lemon law firm will use to begin determining if you should hire product liability attorneys California. According to the State of California:

A purchaser or lessee of a motor vehicle has various rights under both state and federal law if the vehicle does not perform as provided under an express warranty. Warranty law can be complex, and it is impossible to describe comprehensively all of the law in a brief space. The following comments briefly explain the Song-Beverly Consumer Warranty Act and what is popularly known as the “Lemon Law.” This message is not a substitute for your contacting your own lawyer who can best advise you of your rights under the particular circumstances of your case. The Attorney General’s office cannot advise you of your legal rights and cannot represent you in a warranty dispute.

So, bottom line – you have certain rights and protections under the law, and these particular rights and protections can be both complex and case specific. What that means is there is no “rule of thumb,” and what “worked or didn’t work for that guy” may not apply in your case. But it might. The point here is not to assume you understand your rights, nor is it to assume that you may not have any rights in your particular set of circumstances. Each case has its own merits and only a qualified and certified lemon law firm is able to look at your case and properly advice you as to its merits and your rights under the law.

Think about it this way – if you decide not to contact any lemon law firms and just let your car sit there, you have gained absolutely nothing. And, if you pour more money into a problem you may not be financially responsible for under the law, not only have you gained nothing, you are out money that could have been spent on other things. That’s the unfortunate double whammy that comes from doing nothing. Now, ask yourself this: “Have I explored the merits of my case sufficiently, so that I know that I am not losing money while gaining nothing?” If the answer to that question is “no,” then you need to contact product liability attorneys California as soon as possible.

The Law Of Attraction & An Inspirational Story Of Gratitude

I was sent this story as a PowerPoint presentation today by a friend. I thought that it was wonderful and I needed to share it with all of you. .

Two men both seriously ill, occupied the same hospital room. One man was allowed to sit up in his bed for an hour each afternoon to help drain the fluid from his lungs. His bed was next to the rooms only window.
The other man had to spend all his time flat on his back.

The men talked for hours on end. They spoke of their wives and families, their homes, their involvement in the military service, where they had been on vacation.

Every afternoon, when the man in the bed could sit up, he would pass the time by describing to his roomate all the things he could see outside of the window. The man in the other bed began to live for those one hour periods where his world would be broadened and enlivened by all the activity and colour of the world outside.

The window overlooked a park with a lovely lake. Ducks and swans played on the water while children sailed their model boats. Young lovers walked arm in arm amidst folwers of every colour and a fine view of the city skyline could be seen in the distance.

As the man by the window described all this in exquisite details, the man on the other side of the room would close his eyes and imagine the picturesque scene. One warm afternoon, the man by the window described a parade passing by. Although the other man could not hear the band, he could see it in his minds eye as the gentleman by the window portrayed it with descriptive words.

Days, weeks and months passed.

One morning, the day nurse arrived to bring water for their baths only to find the lifeless body of the man by the window, who had died peacefully in his sleep. She was saddened and called the hospital attendants to take the body away.

As son as it seemed appropriate, the other man asked if he could be moved next to the window. The nurse was happy to make the switch and after making sure he was comfortable, she left him alone.

Slowly, painfully, he propped himself up on one elbow to take his first look at the real world outside. He strained to slowly turn and look out the window beside the bed.

It faced a brick wall.

The man asked the nurse what would have compelled his deceased roommate who had described such wonderful things outside this window. The nurse responded that the man was blind and could not even see the wall. She said, Perhaps he just wanted to encourage you.

There is tremendous happiness in making others happy despite our own situations. Shared grief is half the sorrow, but happiness when shared, is doubled. If you want to feel rich, just count all things you have that money cant buy. Today is a gift that is why it is called The Present

There are so many points for you to take from this story:

We are all so busy trying to make it in life that we often miss how grateful we should be for the smaller things in life, like, having someone to talk to or someone to share our day with.

What a wonderful thing it is to make someone elses day a little brighter, no matter what is going on in yours. If you take on this attitude then you will attract more of the same into your life. It really is a win-win situation.

The power of visualisation to change our lives completely. You can take yourself to a different place, where life may be as you want it. You can take yourself to a place where you are feeling different emotions. It shows that through visualisation you have the power to create a different life for yourself. If you want something different in your life and you want it immediately then visualise yourself having it.

Today is a gift that is why it is called The Present. You want to be visualising your future goals, but dont forget to live in the present, in the moment. Be grateful for all you have and enjoy the time you have right now. It is said that a year in the future is closer to you than 10 minutes ago because you can never go back to that time, only forward.

Grasp life with both hands. Be grateful for everything you have right now, big or small. Use visualisations to picture what your future will be.

I hope you enjoyed the story as much as I did.

The Law Of Attraction – Thoughts And Circumstance

Thoughts control our circumstances 100% without exception. Our thoughts attract the circumstances in our life’s, this is the bases of the law of attraction. If you have every been going through a bad period and noticed that things seem to keep going downhill. This is because we tend to have repeated negative thoughts when something bad happens to us. It is also true that if you are eating healthy, exercising, taking care of your spiritual life and have a good outlook on life, the law of attraction will work in your favor and bring more of the good things to you. Law of attraction will actually work very fast in changing a life from one of misery to one of happiness. All it takes is to start doing the good things in your life, keep the negative thoughts away and the positive thoughts will soon follow.

According to the the law of attraction, all people will attract what they are afraid of happening, when they have deep emotional feelings for what they fear and what truly inspires them. Every thought that you let grow will produce an equal outcome. If you have positive thoughts they will manifest into positive situations. If you have negative thoughts they will manifest into negative situations. According to the law of attraction even average thoughts will manifest into average situations. Thoughts also have a neutralizing effect. A extremely negative thought and an extremely positive thought along the same lines, about the same subject will produce an average outcome.

People do not end up in prison or in a terrible situation because of some strange twist of fate. The law of attraction does not allow a good, honest, positive person to suddenly take up a life of crime caused by an outside force. The circumstances a person finds themselves, is not what makes the person good or bad. The circumstances are what reveals the type of person they are. Even when a baby is born, the soul of the baby will attract the proper parents and circumstances that fit the character of the soul.

According to the law of attraction a person does not attract what they want, they attract that which is based on their character. If your thoughts are good or bad, that is what you will get. Based on the law of attraction it is best to combine your thoughts and actions in a positive, forward thinking manor. If your thoughts are that you hate a person and wish them harm, but treat them with grudging kindness, you will bring on yourself what you wish for that person. Instead it is better to change the thoughts about the person or avoid them if possible.

We all want to improve our lives and the circumstances we find ourselves in. We need to first improve ourselves, most importantly our thoughts. By improving our thoughts we will improve the circumstances we find ourselves in. When you improve one area of your life the other areas will follow. Improve your health by walking more and better thoughts will follow. When these better thoughts follow, better circumstances will follow also. It all becomes a self perpetuating cycle. Of course the law of attraction does not care if you are doing and being positive or negative. The self perpetuating cycle can work in both directions.

If you have a specific goal, the law of attraction states that your thoughts and actions need to be in alignment with that goal. If this is not the case you will struggle and never reach that goal and wonder why it did not work out for you. If you truly look deeply at yourself you will see that this is true. The question comes up, why is there people that are dishonest and still achieve great success. To answer the question you need to look deeper at the person. This could be because the person truly believes that his dishonesty is a good positive thing. The law of attraction does not make the judgment of what is right and wrong. We make that judgment. The man may also be a very good person in all aspects of his life except for this one area. The positive aspects of this person will out weigh the one negative.

If you have good thoughts and your actions are also good you will have good circumstances and positive outcome. If your thoughts and actions are negative you will have negative outcome. This is all depending on the degree and magnitude of those thoughts and actions. According to the law of attraction this is the only way it can be.

Interview And Interrogation For Law Enforcement Officers

At no time in our modern history have more demands been placed upon the law enforcement officer. Communities are extremely concerned about crime and they are demanding that law enforcement agencies “do something about it.”

It seems that every day, violent crime and drugs occupy the front page of every newspaper in America.
Politicians at the local, state and national level like to give the impression of being “tough on crime” and espouse philosophies which, at least outwardly, seem to support that toughness.

At the same time, the public (via the media) is scrutinizing the actions of the law enforcement community more closely than ever before.

The public wants results and, more importantly, to feel safe. Yet, that same public will not tolerate any perceived abuses of suspects’ rights in the process.
Primarily due to the increased cost of incarceration, a concerted push is being made to release prisoners from jails and prisons, with the ensuing increase in probationers and parolees.

Probation/Parole Officers have increased caseloads with no end in sight. Juvenile crime is sky-rocketing. Younger, more fearless criminals are becoming the norm, with the media bringing sad tale after tale into our homes on a nightly basis.

When I speak to new recruits, I tell them that what the public wants in a police officer is simple: we want applicants that are warm, caring individuals who are capable of speaking to public groups; conducting demonstrations at schools; counseling troubled youth; rendering first aid; interacting with and assessing problems from a community perspective.

In addition to all of those admirable qualities, we want much more. If a bad guy is trying to get into our home, we want an absolutely fearless gladiator who will willingly risk his/her very life to apprehend the suspect (without injury to the burglar, of course) and protect our property. We want, expect and demand all of this for a salary that is far less than society pays a plumber!

Whether a person is a Probation/Parole Officer supervising 100 felons, a Police Officer in a patrol car, a Fish and Wildlife Officer working all alone 50 miles from any back-up, a military law enforcement officer or a Federal Agent working in a structured environment, being a law enforcement officer is an extraordinarily tough and complex job which demands that we apply all of our skills and training.

How has the law enforcement community dealt with the ever-increasingly need for interview training? Poorly, I’m afraid. Here’s how it works…

In virtually every modern law enforcement agency, much care and consideration is given to the allocation of training, especially that training which requires both expenditures of time and money. Traditionally, different segments of the agency (patrol, detectives, administration, etc.) have had to compete in a sense for their share of the almighty training dollar budget.

As a result, it is incumbent upon agency administrators to prioritize the available training money. Training in most modern law enforcement agencies has taken on the semblance of a triage system at an emergency room. Administrators want to send everyone to training, so they end up throwing some money at those who are “bleeding” the most.

Due to civil liability concerns, patrol officers mainly receive training emphasizing the motor skills areas (firearms, arrest techniques, emergency driving tactics, handgun retention skills, etc.), said areas presenting the most opportunity for misapplication and a resultant lawsuit.

Investigators receive training geared toward their primary areas of emphasis (interview & interrogation, crime scene investigation, investigative specialties, etc.). Ironically, an objective analysis of the component parts of the job of patrol officer reveals interviewing skills are utilized far more often than any other skill.

Think about it, what skill is used more often than the ability to talk with people and elicit information? Conversely, what will get an officer in trouble with the public faster than an inability to communicate?

How many times in any officer’s life will he or she use deadly force? How many times in any given month will he or she get into a vehicular pursuit? How many instances of dealing with hazardous materials will crop up in an average month?

Contrast the frequency of these incidents against the absolute certainty that we will have to interact with people during each and every shift. We routinely qualify in shooting, attend yearly hazardous materials safety courses, attend Emergency Vehicle Operations courses and the like, yet most patrol officers never attend formal interview and interrogation instruction after an initial exposure to it in the basic training academy.

Consider the following sober statistics:

Police Training academies in the United States offer, on average, only 4 hours of training on interviewing techniques during Basic Training.

60% of law enforcement training academies in the U.S. don’t offer any interview training at all during Basic Training.

Less than 20% of all law enforcement officers have received in-service training in interviewing techniques.

Unfortunately, in most law enforcement agencies, the investigators are repeatedly sent to interview and interrogation training, while the patrol officers who apply to attend are routinely turned down.

In the bureaucratic effort to make training dollars stretch a long way, administrators often prioritize training requests, sometimes based upon outdated or inaccurate information.

I have personally taught classes year after year where the same people (investigators) are in attendance taking the same training while other members of their agencies never get to go! The reason? Someone in authority determined that investigators are the only ones that need the training, so they send them to the same thing year after year.

It is largely for this reason that I developed the Focused Interviewing system in written format, to allow the inexpensive, easy methods contained herein to benefit police officers without regard to job assignment, all in an affordable manner.

Compounding the training problem is the current countrywide push toward “Community Policing” and all of the responsibilities inherent with that system.

Simply put, Community Policing can be best described as a philosophy of empowerment that allows the beat officer to solve problems. By a collaborative effort with others in the community, police officers are responsible for actually resolving the community concerns, rather than just taking enforcement action.

While the philosophy sounds good, the average law enforcement patrol officer has not been given the tools with which to conduct investigations, interview people, make public presentations and achieve this collaboration to solve problems.

Federal grant money has been spread across the country in an effort to promote Community Policing. Officers have been hired, equipment has been purchased and public relations efforts have been extensive in this area.

Unfortunately, officers that do not have the foundation of investigative training may find themselves in an uncomfortable position.

One Community Policing officer recently told me “If I had wanted to interview neighbors, show photo lineups, speak to public groups and work extensively with other public agencies, I would have been a detective. What happened to good, old-fashioned police work?”

One of the primary components of Community Policing is the ability to interact with people in a non-threatening manner which elicits maximum information.

It is an exceptionally good idea for a Field Training Officer to share interviewing techniques with a trainee. Most basic training academies teach a block of instruction on “Interviewing and Interrogation.”
However, these traditional systems stress the structured interview approach to interviewing.

The new trainee soon realizes that he or she will conduct hundreds or thousands of street interviews while on patrol and will perform relatively few formal, structured interviews in an interrogation room setting.

The beauty of the first responder interviewing training is its simplicity. There is no memorization of steps, rules, mandatory order of progression or confusing concepts.

Instead, in a series of articles, I will present a system where you decide how to approach the myriad of situations facing police officers in everyday life, using concepts which are based upon common sense.

There are some very fine formal “Interview and Interrogation” type training classes for law enforcement officers out there (being a polygraph examiner, I have attended quite a few of them), but they tend to emphasize the structured interrogation aspect of the situation and are geared more toward an investigator than a patrol officer.

The information I will deliver in this series of articles does not deal with just the structured interview/interrogation type setting. Again, an analysis of a patrol officer’s daily job reveals that the vast majority of contacts that he or she experiences are not in a structured setting conducive to a formalized method of interview and interrogation.

These techniques are being successfully used daily, are very easy to learn and do not require reference texts to be carried in the field.

In this system, we will look at what is wrong (or at least ineffective) with typical street interview techniques, what led us to use techniques that don’t work, what does work and how to develop techniques that will dramatically increase our “confession” or “incriminating statement” rates in dealing with offenders and will be of great value in clarifying statements obtained from victims and witnesses.

Yes, there will be some psychology and physiology presented, as both lay a foundation for the working mechanisms of this system. Although (I can hear your groans already) some basic psychological and physiological concepts are included so that you know why these concepts work, they are not necessary to learn to effectively use the procedures described herein.

Quite simply, the principles are included because some people like to know why something works, some people like to be shown how it works and some people won’t be convinced until they use the system personally.